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By Keir Chapman

Why use Earth Site Encyclopedia

Earth-Site intends this encyclopedia to be informative for all levels of education from those studying at GCSE to those studying postgraduate. Higher level subject areas will be clearly marked making revision, research or study easier for your particular needs. We will also provide citations and further references where available.

More than just a reference encyclopedia, Earth Site is Free Educational Encyclopedia. The first online encyclopedia to have tests at the end of sections, so the user can test their knowledge and find the areas they need to improve. The tests are perfect for revision and provide another way to help with recall of the subject matter.

This is a comprehensive free encyclopaedia containing timelines, images, animations and live news feeds, making it a multimedia electronic library of reference, that we hope you will find fun, informative and a useful tool to prepare for GCSE's and other academic exams.

Earth site encyclopedia is updated daily with articles created with the latest information from reliable sources and leaders in their respective fields including Nature, NASA, ESA, The Library of congress, the CIA Factbook and more.

Earth site encyclopedia is a free resource containing thousands of articles written specifically with students in mind and organised into relevant subjects. Our aim is to make this a complete encyclopaedic reference with all the relevant knowledge of the earth i.e. all the facts and information from subjects taught in schools and colleges.

 

 

 

Definition of encyclopedia as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary.

Encyclopedia or encyclopaedia > Noun. A book or set of books giving information on many subjects or on many aspects of one subject and typically arranged alphabetically.

Origin
Mid 16th century: modern Latin, from pseudo Greek enkuklopaideia for enkuklios paideia meanining all round education.

Earth Site Encyclopedia
On this day
On This Day ...

 

November23

In 1859 William H. Bonney AKA ‘Billy the Kid’ was born in New York City

On the 18th of February 1878 English Rancher John Tunstall was shot dead in cold blood starting a war in Lincoln County, USA. John Tunstall had employed young gunmen, including William Bonney, for protection as tensions rose between himself, his business partner, Lawyer Alexander McSween on one side and two Irish-Americans (J.J. Dolan and L.G. Murphy) owners of a general store called ‘The House’ and who wanted to control the beef market in the area. A posse, who were sent by the store owners, entered Tunstall’s ranch but soon left after meeting Bonney and the other hired guns. Before they left the ranch, Tunstall (who was alone) approached the posse demanding they didn’t return when one of the men shot him. The Tunstall hired guns could only watch as their boss was shot dead in cold blood and for this they would seek revenge against The House and its allies. Tunstall’s business partner, McSween, began legal proceedings to have the culprits brought to justice.

Billy the Kid and the rest of the Tunstall posse became known as “the Regulators” and after McSween secured warrants for the arrests of the men the regulators were deputised to bring them to justice. The regulators began to hunt down all those involved with the killing of Tunstall and on the 9th of March they shot two of the house posse, Bill Morton and Frank Baker, who they claim attempted to escape. When Regulator William McCloskey objected to killing Morton and Baker he was accused of working for the House and shot by fellow regulator Frank MacNab. When Governor Axtell arrived in Lincoln and heard of the deaths, the Regulators became outlaws.

Another of the men in the Houses posse was Sheriff William J. Brady and on the 1st of April 1878 Billy the Regulators ambushed the Sheriff and killed him along with his deputy George Hindman on the streets of Lincoln. The murders of Sheriff Brady and Deputy Hindman began a manhunt for Billy the Kid and many would try to claim the reward.

On the 4th of April they hunted down Andrew “Buckshot” Roberts and the famous Gunfight of Blazer’s Mill took place. Roberts was a formidable opponent for the Regulators and before he was shot dead he had managed to kill their leader, Dick Brewer, and wound several others.

The regulators voted Frank MacNab to take the place of Brewer but on the 29th of April the Regulators were cornered by a large posse and MacNab was killed. After 2 years on the run and several more confrontations Billy the Kid was finally caught by Sheriff Pat Garrett. He was put on trial and the judge ordered him to be hung. On the night of the 28th of April 1881, while Billy was being returned to his cell, he grabbed a gun and shot to guards before escaping on a horse.

Pat Garrett had made it his mission to return justice to the streets of Lincoln and he couldn’t allow the Kid to get away with such an insult. By June that year Garret had been informed that Billy the Kid was hiding out in Fort Summer, some 140 miles west of Lincoln. He took two deputies and went in search of Billy. When Garrett arrived in Fort Summer he sought information from an acquaintance of his, Peter Maxwell. Garret awoke Maxwell as he slept in his bed and began to question him on the whereabouts of Billy the Kid. At the same time the Kid was on his way over to Pete’s to get some beef from him. As he entered the room both the Kid and Garrett were unaware of the others identity. That was until Pete Maxwell whispered to Garrett saying “it’s him”. With that both men went for their guns. Garrett was had the upper hand as he was in the dark and Billy was taken completely off guard. Pat Garret shot Billy the Kid killing him with a single shot on the 14th of July 1881 (Billy was aged just 21).  

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Random Facts

Becoming a better Student
Improving your learning and information retention skills

 

Good Source Material

One important factor is the quality of the material you use and the way it is presented. It has long been thought that multimedia learning (using words, audio, images, graphs, maps, and animation) can improve a students ability to learn and recall the information they have learnt. Looking into the subject there are many studies which have proven just that but one study in particular shows a massive improvement.

Richard Mayer is a professor of psychology at the University of California and has 25 years experience in testing student’s abilities to study when the information is presented in various ways. Recently Professor Mayer and his team performed ten different studies where students were taught scientific methods. Some of the students were taught using words alone and some were taught using words and other media. On average there was an 89% improvement in learning and recall when multimedia methods were used.

 

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A clear workspace and set times

An oldie but still very true, it is important to have an area which tidy and has no clutter as this has been proven to help with study. Try to find a quiet area with a lot of space, sunlight and if possible a house plant. Photosynthesising plants produce more oxygen and an oxygen rich environment can help your brains performance.

If studying for exams then it is helpful to plan which subjects you will study during particular sessions. Planning ahead can help you focus and utilise your time more effectively spreading it across the topics as required.

 

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Use it or loose it

In January 2004 the pier reviewed magazine Nature explained how the grey matter in people’s minds increased when they learnt to juggle but then reverted back when they stopped. The study took test subjects and monitored their brains using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure any changes to their brains when they were taught a task (in this case juggling). The imaging showed that the amount of grey matter in the area responsible for visual memory increased as they were practicing juggling. The subjects then stopped juggling and after a while they were measured again revealing that the new grey matter had gone.

The study demonstrates something already known by Neurobiologist and called ‘Synaptic Pruning’.

This is a natural process that the brain goes through especially in adolescents where many of the synaptic pathways created as children (as children we overproduce these pathways) but, no longer required, are lost but this allows others to strengthen (New Scientist issue 2826).

By repeated learning techniques such as reading from source, making notes and rewriting the information in your own words you strengthen these synaptic links associated with the subject matter and make it easier to remember. In the same way if studying for exams using revision cards which have concise pieces of information on can be very useful, if you periodically read through them.

 Sources  

  1. Department of Neurology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg 93053, Germany
  2. Department of Psychiatry, University of Jena, 07740 Jena, Germany
  3. Institute of Neuroradiology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg 93053, Germany

 

 

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Always remain a student

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A study also suggests that when you have a answer to a question that you know but can’t quite remember, trying to remember the answer can make things worse. Psychologist Karin Humphreys and Amy Beth Warriner suggest that the time it takes for you to remember a fact that is on the tip of your tongue, puts your brain in that same state when you try to remember the fact in the future.

In their study they took a group of thirty people and asked them a series of questions and the response time was monitored, some they knew some they didn’t but some the answer was on the tip of their tongue. They were then re-asked the questions two days later and it was found that the answers that sat on their tongue on day 1 were more likely to stay on their tongue on day 2.

“The extra time that people spend trying to dredge up the word is what the researchers describe as "incorrect practice" time. Instead of learning the correct word, people are learning the mistake itself” explains Humphreys.

Take advantage of the great age we live in and instead of trying to recall the answer from memory, look it up and you will remember it much clearer next time you come across it.

 

 

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