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By Keir Chapman
Earth-Site intends this encyclopedia to be informative for all levels of education from those studying at GCSE to those studying postgraduate. Higher level subject areas will be clearly marked making revision, research or study easier for your particular needs. We will also provide citations and further references where available.
More than just a reference encyclopedia, Earth Site is Free Educational Encyclopedia. The first online encyclopedia to have tests at the end of sections, so the user can test their knowledge and find the areas they need to improve. The tests are perfect for revision and provide another way to help with recall of the subject matter.
This is a comprehensive free encyclopaedia containing timelines, images, animations and live news feeds, making it a multimedia electronic library of reference, that we hope you will find fun, informative and a useful tool to prepare for GCSE's and other academic exams.
Earth site encyclopedia is updated daily with articles created with the latest information from reliable sources and leaders in their respective fields including Nature, NASA, ESA, The Library of congress, the CIA Factbook and more.
Earth site encyclopedia is a free resource containing thousands of articles written specifically with students in mind and organised into relevant subjects. Our aim is to make this a complete encyclopaedic reference with all the relevant knowledge of the earth i.e. all the facts and information from subjects taught in schools and colleges.
Definition of encyclopedia as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary.
Encyclopedia or encyclopaedia > Noun. A book or set of books giving information on many subjects or on many aspects of one subject and typically arranged alphabetically.
Mid 16th century: modern Latin, from pseudo Greek enkuklopaideia for enkuklios paideia meanining all round education.
100 years ago in 1914 The First World War Began
On the 20th of May 1882 the Austro-Hungarian Empire signed a treaty with Germany and Italy known as the Triple Alliance Treaty (1882). The treaty was a military alliance of the signatories which ensured support of the other nations in the event of aggression from any other “Great Power”. The Great Powers were Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Austro-Hungary, Russia and The United States.
On the 17th of August 1892 France and Russia drafted their own Military Alliance in response, guaranteeing the others assistance if either was attacked by another Great Power. The Franco-Russian Treaty was completed on the 4th of January 1894. Great Britain had remained neutral but on the 8th of April 1904 they signed the “Entente Cordiale” with France which was a similar military alliance treaty on the 31st of August 1907 the United Kingdom and Russia signed a Military Alliance. These treaties between Britain, France and Russia became known as the Triple Entente and along with the Triple Alliance two great power structures had formed in Europe.
The Serbian King Milan I Obrenović had a very close relationship with the Austro-Hungarian Empire and they lived in peace for many years. On the 28th of May (10th of June Gregorian) 1903 King Milan I Obrenović and his wife, Queen Draga were killed in what became known as the May Coup and replaced with King Peter I. Peter I had ambitions of rebuilding the Serbian Empire of the 14th Centaury and this growth of the Serbian Empire would bring much conflict between Serbia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
On the 6th of October 1908 the Austro-Hungarian Empire officially announced its Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina which angered Serbia, Montenegro, the Russian Empire and many of the Bosnian people in what became known as the “Bosnian Crisis”. Serbia backed many would-be-assassins against the Empires officials but soon Serbian Nationalists would orchestrate one of the most infamous assassinations in history.
In June 1913 Emperor Franz Joseph I sent his nephew and heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, to the Bosnian capital Sarajevo to inspect the Hungarian troops there. The Inspection was set for the 28th of June and both Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie Chotek von Chotvoka, arrived early in the day with the intention of having lunch before the inspection.
Seven Serbian terrorists, which were part of the Black Hand group, planned the assassination attempt of Archduke Ferdinand while on his visit. The seven men were in place along the planned route each with the intent to carry out the assassination if the others were unable. The first two assassins couldn’t strike due to the crowds on the street but the third, Vaso Čubrilović, was able to throw a timed bomb at the car containing Ferdinand and his wife. The bomb however bounced off the car and exploded under another car in the Archdukes motorcade. The remaining cars in the motorcade continued at high speed to the town hall preventing another attempt. After the Archduke and his wife briefly recovered from the experience they planned to visit the victims of the bomb blast in the hospital. While on their way to the hospital their driver took a wrong turn and as he stopped the car to reverse another of the Assassins, Gavrilo Princip, walked up to the car and fired just two shot from about 5 meters away. One shot hit Archduke Ferdinand in the neck and another hit his wife in the stomach. Franz Ferdinand, his wife and unborn child all died from the shots.
Bad blood existed between the two powers for some time and on the 7th of July 1914, in response to the assassination, the Ministerial Council of Austro-Hungary convened in Vienna to discuss the “measures to be used in reforming the evil internal political conditions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as shown up by the disastrous event at Sarajevo”. Diplomatic preparations had already been made when the Austro-Hungarian government met with delegates from the German Government who assured them that Germany would support any acts of aggression with Serbia.
With this assurance in mind the Ministerial Council began to “make up their minds as to whether the moment had not come for reducing Serbia to permanent inoffensiveness by a demonstration of their power”. The Ministers agreed on placing demands on Serbia that “must undoubtedly be hard, but should not be impossible of fulfilment. Should Serbia accept them we should be able to quote a dazzling diplomatic victory, and our prestige in the Balkans would be raised”. If their demands were not met than they planned to take Warlike action against Serbia, stressing that the “object of such action ought to be the reduction of Serbia, but not her complete annihilation” for fear of provoking Russia (an ally of Serbia) into all out war. By the end of the meeting the Ministers stated that any act of aggression on Serbia could not be considered until they could determine “Whether it would be possible to mobilize against Serbia first, and only subsequently against Russia as well, if this should become necessary”?
By the 14th of July Germany had convinced Austro-Hungary that a swift offensive against Serbia before Russia could react was possible and pushed them to take a hardline against Serbia. On the 14th of July a report from the German Ambassador to Vienna stated that the Ultimatum to Serbia “is being composed so that the possibility of its being accepted is practically excluded”.
The Ultimatum was sent to the Serbian government on the 23rd of July 1914 and did indeed contain some tough demands that would demoralise the Kingdom of Serbia. Some of the demands included that Serbia accept an independent enquiry by Austro-Hungary into the assassination and the Serbian government’s involvement, which is guilty of tolerating the terrorists and has “exhibited to the whole world the dreadful consequences of such tolerance”. Serbia must take steps to suppress any anti Austro-Hungarian propaganda and eliminate any terrorist threat against them. That Serbia accepts the Austro-Hungarian governance of Bosnia and not concern themselves with the affairs of the country, but live as a friendly nation, changing their foreign policy. Serbia were given 48 hours to comply with the ultimatum. Upon receiving the Ultimatum Serbian Government requested further assurances from Russia that it would have their support in the event of hostilities. Russia, believing that Germany were using the event to push for war to secure their assets in the area, mobilised units on the 24th of July in anticipation of war. Serbia could not accept all the terms of the Ultimatum which was worded in such a way to call the Serbian government criminals and totally demoralise them. In anticipation to the Austro-Hungarian response to this, Serbia also began to mobilise troops. On the 28th of July Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia and, due to the military alliance treaties of all the Great Powers of Europe, the First World War began.
This article tells the story of the creation of our Solar System around 5,000 million years ago. Explaining the creation of the sun from the left over matter after a supernova, the layout of the planets and why it all started spinning.
This article also contains animated images of the planets, moons and sun which link to further articles giving the latest information about the local celestial bodies.
This Article is all about D.N.A (Dideoxynucleic Acid) which is the coding of life.
This Article Covers:-
The components (Nitrogenous Base, Pentose
Sugars and a Phosphate Group)
The structure and Bonding of DNA.
Telling the story of how the elements were constructed into a logical order that even allowed Chemists to predict the properties of elements yet to be discovered. We explain that a version by British chemist John Newlands was rejected by his piers just three years before Mendeleev created his version.
The table has ‘clickable’ atomic symbols linking to further articles about the individual elements.
This article explains the process of separating parts or fractions of a solution by their volatility. We show the different ways fractional distillation is used from the commercial use of obtaining petrol etc from crude oil, the process of obtaining Liquid Nitrogen from liquefied air and how to set up the process in lab to separate most solutions.
One of the greatest physicists of all time, Galileo. This article tells the story of a physicist named Galileo who refused to ignore the scientific facts and went against one of the most powerful men of his time to keep the truth alive. After seeing a telescope, Galileo built his own version and was the first recorded person to utilise the tool to look at the heavens. With it he discovered four of Jupiter’s moons, the rings of Saturn, Sun spots and the craters of the moon. But Galileo was more than an astronomer, he improved on Leonardo Da Vinci’s theories of falling bodies, gave us the concept of Inertia and many other concepts concerning gravity and dynamics (movement of objects on Earth)
The big bang theory is our most accurate explanation for the creation of the entire universe; compliant with current scientific observations, this theory has yet to be proved inaccurate.
This article tells the story of how it all began 13.7 billion years ago with the scientific discoveries that led to its conception to the evidence of its occurrence found in Cosmic Background Radiation.
The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 53 independent countries that agree to abide by the charter of the commonwealth. This Article gives general information about the combined population, size, Gross National Products etc, the history of this union and information about each countries membership with links to profile articles concerning each country.
Information about the world including it’s continents area of sea and land, human populations, total value for the WDP, religions, languages and it’s geology. Links to information for the individual countries categorised within each continent is also available giving an individualcountries and global scope of the world’s geography.
Becoming a better Student
Improving your learning and information retention skills
Good Source Material
One important factor is the quality of the material you use and the way it is presented. It has long been thought that multimedia learning (using words, audio, images, graphs, maps, and animation) can improve a students ability to learn and recall the information they have learnt. Looking into the subject there are many studies which have proven just that but one study in particular shows a massive improvement.
Richard Mayer is a professor of psychology at the University of California and has 25 years experience in testing student’s abilities to study when the information is presented in various ways. Recently Professor Mayer and his team performed ten different studies where students were taught scientific methods. Some of the students were taught using words alone and some were taught using words and other media. On average there was an 89% improvement in learning and recall when multimedia methods were used.
A clear workspace and set times
An oldie but still very true, it is important to have an area which tidy and has no clutter as this has been proven to help with study. Try to find a quiet area with a lot of space, sunlight and if possible a house plant. Photosynthesising plants produce more oxygen and an oxygen rich environment can help your brains performance.
If studying for exams then it is helpful to plan which subjects you will study during particular sessions. Planning ahead can help you focus and utilise your time more effectively spreading it across the topics as required.
Use it or loose it
In January 2004 the pier reviewed magazine Nature explained how the grey matter in people’s minds increased when they learnt to juggle but then reverted back when they stopped. The study took test subjects and monitored their brains using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure any changes to their brains when they were taught a task (in this case juggling). The imaging showed that the amount of grey matter in the area responsible for visual memory increased as they were practicing juggling. The subjects then stopped juggling and after a while they were measured again revealing that the new grey matter had gone.
The study demonstrates something already known by Neurobiologist and called ‘Synaptic Pruning’.
This is a natural process that the brain goes through especially in adolescents where many of the synaptic pathways created as children (as children we overproduce these pathways) but, no longer required, are lost but this allows others to strengthen (New Scientist issue 2826).
By repeated learning techniques such as reading from source, making notes and rewriting the information in your own words you strengthen these synaptic links associated with the subject matter and make it easier to remember. In the same way if studying for exams using revision cards which have concise pieces of information on can be very useful, if you periodically read through them.
Always remain a student
Never be afraid to look things up you are not completely sure about. Not only does this keep your brain making new or stronger synaptic pathways but it may give you a different view on things which makes it all just click into place. Maths is a prime example, being showed a certain method for percentages can make all the difference. At school I was taught several stages to the process and it wasn’t until leaving when someone taught me a much simpler way. Now if I want to calculate 15% of any amount I simply times that number by 0.15 and there is my answer, simple.
A study also suggests that when you have a answer to a question that you know but can’t quite remember, trying to remember the answer can make things worse. Psychologist Karin Humphreys and Amy Beth Warriner suggest that the time it takes for you to remember a fact that is on the tip of your tongue, puts your brain in that same state when you try to remember the fact in the future.
In their study they took a group of thirty people and asked them a series of questions and the response time was monitored, some they knew some they didn’t but some the answer was on the tip of their tongue. They were then re-asked the questions two days later and it was found that the answers that sat on their tongue on day 1 were more likely to stay on their tongue on day 2.
“The extra time that people spend trying to dredge up the word is what the researchers describe as "incorrect practice" time. Instead of learning the correct word, people are learning the mistake itself” explains Humphreys.
Take advantage of the great age we live in and instead of trying to recall the answer from memory, look it up and you will remember it much clearer next time you come across it.
Tiger Sharks embryos develop teeth while in the womb. For them survival of the fittest begins from this point on as they start to attack each other as soon as their teeth are developed.
The medical term for a runny nose is Rhinorrhea
Mercury rotates so slowly and orbits the sun so quickly that it only has 1.5 days in one of its years.
The word orchid comes from the Latin ‘Orchidaceace’ meaning testicle. It got this name because of the shape of its roots and they were presented to women by men as a sign of their intentions.
If you had a Pizza with the Radius of ‘Z’ and thickness ‘A’ then its volume would be calculated by Pi x Z x Z x A
The world’s shortest war in recorded history was fought on the 27th of August 1896 between Britain and Zanzibar. After 38 minutes Zanzibar surrendered.
The only letter that is not present on periodic table of elements is ‘J’
In 1917 John D. Rockefeller was co-founder of the ‘Standard Oil Company’ and was said to have a net worth of $340 billion. In 1917 he could have paid of the entire public debt on his own. Bill Gates is thought to have a net worth of $76.8 billion but his fortune would barley cover two months interest of the current American public debt.
Houseflies find sugar with their feet, which are 10 million times more sensitive than human tongues.
A foraging honey bee will travel up to 60 miles a day. They must extract nectar from several million flowers to make a single pound of honey.
The dwarf Planet Pluto takes 248 ‘earth years’ to make one full orbit of the Sun. Since its discovery in1930 it has only travelled a third of its orbit.
By 2020 the amount of Chinese men of marriageable age will outnumber the female population of china by 30 million.
In 1875 the king of Fiji returned from a state visit to Australia with measles which killed a quarter of his own people.