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By Keir Chapman
Earth-Site intends this encyclopedia to be informative for all levels of education from those studying at GCSE to those studying postgraduate. Higher level subject areas will be clearly marked making revision, research or study easier for your particular needs. We will also provide citations and further references where available.
More than just a reference encyclopedia, Earth Site is Free Educational Encyclopedia. The first online encyclopedia to have tests at the end of sections, so the user can test their knowledge and find the areas they need to improve. The tests are perfect for revision and provide another way to help with recall of the subject matter.
This is a comprehensive free encyclopaedia containing timelines, images, animations and live news feeds, making it a multimedia electronic library of reference, that we hope you will find fun, informative and a useful tool to prepare for GCSE's and other academic exams.
Earth site encyclopedia is updated daily with articles created with the latest information from reliable sources and leaders in their respective fields including Nature, NASA, ESA, The Library of congress, the CIA Factbook and more.
Earth site encyclopedia is a free resource containing thousands of articles written specifically with students in mind and organised into relevant subjects. Our aim is to make this a complete encyclopaedic reference with all the relevant knowledge of the earth i.e. all the facts and information from subjects taught in schools and colleges.
Definition of encyclopedia as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary.
Encyclopedia or encyclopaedia > Noun. A book or set of books giving information on many subjects or on many aspects of one subject and typically arranged alphabetically.
Mid 16th century: modern Latin, from pseudo Greek enkuklopaideia for enkuklios paideia meanining all round education.
In 1940 the Battle of Britain ended and so with it was Hitler’s plans for an invasion of Great Britain
On the 18th of June 1940 newly appointed Prime minister of the United Kingdom, Winston Churchill gave a speech stating that "... the Battle of France is over. The Battle of Britain is about to begin". On the 22nd of June France signed an Armistice with Germany leaving Britain as the only remaining Allied threat in Europe. Hitler was indeed planning an invasion of Britain but due to Britain’s superior Royal Navy the invasion would not come from the sea. But Hitler did have the Luftwaffe, the most powerful Air Force in the world.
On the 28th of June 1919 the “Treaty of Versailles”, signed at the end of World War I, ordered Germany to disarm and forbade them from having military forces including an air force. However Germany continued training its pilots using civilian training schools as a cover. Later in 1924 Germany became more daring and aided by Russia they began training in a secret airfield in Lipetsk using larger military aircraft. Shortly after Adolf Hitler came to power as chancellor on the 30th January 1933 he ordered the large scale production of military aircraft and training of pilots under the command of Herman Goering. The Luftwaffe was created on the 15th of May 1933 and thanks to huge financial support within three years the secret air force soon became the largest and most powerful air force in the world.
The Royal Air force was the first independent air force in the world having been formed on the 1st of April 1918. After World War II the Royal Air Force also became the largest air force in the world but this title would not remain for long. When the strength of the Luftwaffe was demonstrated in 1939 and war was imminent the United Kingdom began large scale production of its air force. The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan started on the 17th of December 1939, training pilots in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the UK for areal warfare and strategic bombing. Pilots from all these countries and more would soon be available to fight within their own air force or part of the RAF.
Despite the increased preparations the RAF were numerically outnumbered by the Luftwaffe and previous fighting in the Battle for France signalled the Luftwaffe’s superiority of the skies. On the 10th of July 1940 the Luftwaffe began an aerial bombardment of British ships in the Channel marking the start of the Battle of Britain. Shortly after the Luftwaffe began to attack coastal shorelines until the 12th of August 1940 when their focus was turned to the RAF, airfields and radar bases. The Luftwaffe’s pilots favoured their Messerschmitt BF 109E (Me 109) for areal combat believing them to have superior manoeuvrability while RAF pilots preferred the Spitfire which could out manoeuvre the Me 109 with a smaller turning circular and superior weaponry (the spitfire had 8 machine guns compared to the Me 109’s 2 machine guns and two cannons).
Goering was concerned and surprised with the losses to the Luftwaffe during these raids and on the 4th of September he changed tactics once more with bombing raids of the major cities. These raids continued with the hope of destroying British infrastructure and morale. On the 15th of September the Luftwaffe sent out its largest fleet of 1,120 aircraft with the hope of initiating a large scale attack with the RAF and hopefully annihilating them once and for all. As the 500 bombers approached their target London with their 620 fighter escort, the 620 RAF fighters engaged the invaders and the largest areal battle in history ensued over the city of London. The RAF proved to be the superior force inflicting far more damage on the enemy proving despite fewer numbers. Hitler realised that an Aerial superiority of Britain would not be possible and therefore “Operation Sea Lion”, the invasion of Britain, never came to pass.
In the battle of Britain the RAF had 1,960 aircraft with 2,936 pilots and of these 595 were non British pilots. The foreign Allied pilots that aided in the battle of Britain include 145 Polish, 127 New Zealanders, 112 Canadians, 88 Czechoslovakians, 32 Australians, 28 Belgians, 25 South Africans, 13 French, 10 Irish, 7 from the US, 3 Rhodesians, 1 Jamaican and 1 Palestinian. Thanks to the efforts made by these allies and the 2,341 British pilots Hitler lost the Battle of Britain which ended on the 31st of October 1940.
During the Battle on the 20th of August 1940 Churchill gave a speech to the House of Commons, declaring that “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed to so few by so many”.
This article tells the story of the creation of our Solar System around 5,000 million years ago. Explaining the creation of the sun from the left over matter after a supernova, the layout of the planets and why it all started spinning.
This article also contains animated images of the planets, moons and sun which link to further articles giving the latest information about the local celestial bodies.
This Article is all about D.N.A (Dideoxynucleic Acid) which is the coding of life.
This Article Covers:-
The components (Nitrogenous Base, Pentose
Sugars and a Phosphate Group)
The structure and Bonding of DNA.
Telling the story of how the elements were constructed into a logical order that even allowed Chemists to predict the properties of elements yet to be discovered. We explain that a version by British chemist John Newlands was rejected by his piers just three years before Mendeleev created his version.
The table has ‘clickable’ atomic symbols linking to further articles about the individual elements.
This article explains the process of separating parts or fractions of a solution by their volatility. We show the different ways fractional distillation is used from the commercial use of obtaining petrol etc from crude oil, the process of obtaining Liquid Nitrogen from liquefied air and how to set up the process in lab to separate most solutions.
One of the greatest physicists of all time, Galileo. This article tells the story of a physicist named Galileo who refused to ignore the scientific facts and went against one of the most powerful men of his time to keep the truth alive. After seeing a telescope, Galileo built his own version and was the first recorded person to utilise the tool to look at the heavens. With it he discovered four of Jupiter’s moons, the rings of Saturn, Sun spots and the craters of the moon. But Galileo was more than an astronomer, he improved on Leonardo Da Vinci’s theories of falling bodies, gave us the concept of Inertia and many other concepts concerning gravity and dynamics (movement of objects on Earth)
The big bang theory is our most accurate explanation for the creation of the entire universe; compliant with current scientific observations, this theory has yet to be proved inaccurate.
This article tells the story of how it all began 13.7 billion years ago with the scientific discoveries that led to its conception to the evidence of its occurrence found in Cosmic Background Radiation.
The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 53 independent countries that agree to abide by the charter of the commonwealth. This Article gives general information about the combined population, size, Gross National Products etc, the history of this union and information about each countries membership with links to profile articles concerning each country.
Information about the world including it’s continents area of sea and land, human populations, total value for the WDP, religions, languages and it’s geology. Links to information for the individual countries categorised within each continent is also available giving an individualcountries and global scope of the world’s geography.
Becoming a better Student
Improving your learning and information retention skills
Good Source Material
One important factor is the quality of the material you use and the way it is presented. It has long been thought that multimedia learning (using words, audio, images, graphs, maps, and animation) can improve a students ability to learn and recall the information they have learnt. Looking into the subject there are many studies which have proven just that but one study in particular shows a massive improvement.
Richard Mayer is a professor of psychology at the University of California and has 25 years experience in testing student’s abilities to study when the information is presented in various ways. Recently Professor Mayer and his team performed ten different studies where students were taught scientific methods. Some of the students were taught using words alone and some were taught using words and other media. On average there was an 89% improvement in learning and recall when multimedia methods were used.
A clear workspace and set times
An oldie but still very true, it is important to have an area which tidy and has no clutter as this has been proven to help with study. Try to find a quiet area with a lot of space, sunlight and if possible a house plant. Photosynthesising plants produce more oxygen and an oxygen rich environment can help your brains performance.
If studying for exams then it is helpful to plan which subjects you will study during particular sessions. Planning ahead can help you focus and utilise your time more effectively spreading it across the topics as required.
Use it or loose it
In January 2004 the pier reviewed magazine Nature explained how the grey matter in people’s minds increased when they learnt to juggle but then reverted back when they stopped. The study took test subjects and monitored their brains using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure any changes to their brains when they were taught a task (in this case juggling). The imaging showed that the amount of grey matter in the area responsible for visual memory increased as they were practicing juggling. The subjects then stopped juggling and after a while they were measured again revealing that the new grey matter had gone.
The study demonstrates something already known by Neurobiologist and called ‘Synaptic Pruning’.
This is a natural process that the brain goes through especially in adolescents where many of the synaptic pathways created as children (as children we overproduce these pathways) but, no longer required, are lost but this allows others to strengthen (New Scientist issue 2826).
By repeated learning techniques such as reading from source, making notes and rewriting the information in your own words you strengthen these synaptic links associated with the subject matter and make it easier to remember. In the same way if studying for exams using revision cards which have concise pieces of information on can be very useful, if you periodically read through them.
Always remain a student
Never be afraid to look things up you are not completely sure about. Not only does this keep your brain making new or stronger synaptic pathways but it may give you a different view on things which makes it all just click into place. Maths is a prime example, being showed a certain method for percentages can make all the difference. At school I was taught several stages to the process and it wasn’t until leaving when someone taught me a much simpler way. Now if I want to calculate 15% of any amount I simply times that number by 0.15 and there is my answer, simple.
A study also suggests that when you have a answer to a question that you know but can’t quite remember, trying to remember the answer can make things worse. Psychologist Karin Humphreys and Amy Beth Warriner suggest that the time it takes for you to remember a fact that is on the tip of your tongue, puts your brain in that same state when you try to remember the fact in the future.
In their study they took a group of thirty people and asked them a series of questions and the response time was monitored, some they knew some they didn’t but some the answer was on the tip of their tongue. They were then re-asked the questions two days later and it was found that the answers that sat on their tongue on day 1 were more likely to stay on their tongue on day 2.
“The extra time that people spend trying to dredge up the word is what the researchers describe as "incorrect practice" time. Instead of learning the correct word, people are learning the mistake itself” explains Humphreys.
Take advantage of the great age we live in and instead of trying to recall the answer from memory, look it up and you will remember it much clearer next time you come across it.
Tiger Sharks embryos develop teeth while in the womb. For them survival of the fittest begins from this point on as they start to attack each other as soon as their teeth are developed.
The medical term for a runny nose is Rhinorrhea
Mercury rotates so slowly and orbits the sun so quickly that it only has 1.5 days in one of its years.
The word orchid comes from the Latin ‘Orchidaceace’ meaning testicle. It got this name because of the shape of its roots and they were presented to women by men as a sign of their intentions.
If you had a Pizza with the Radius of ‘Z’ and thickness ‘A’ then its volume would be calculated by Pi x Z x Z x A
The world’s shortest war in recorded history was fought on the 27th of August 1896 between Britain and Zanzibar. After 38 minutes Zanzibar surrendered.
The only letter that is not present on periodic table of elements is ‘J’
In 1917 John D. Rockefeller was co-founder of the ‘Standard Oil Company’ and was said to have a net worth of $340 billion. In 1917 he could have paid of the entire public debt on his own. Bill Gates is thought to have a net worth of $76.8 billion but his fortune would barley cover two months interest of the current American public debt.
Houseflies find sugar with their feet, which are 10 million times more sensitive than human tongues.
A foraging honey bee will travel up to 60 miles a day. They must extract nectar from several million flowers to make a single pound of honey.
The dwarf Planet Pluto takes 248 ‘earth years’ to make one full orbit of the Sun. Since its discovery in1930 it has only travelled a third of its orbit.
By 2020 the amount of Chinese men of marriageable age will outnumber the female population of china by 30 million.
In 1875 the king of Fiji returned from a state visit to Australia with measles which killed a quarter of his own people.