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14th of August










August 14

In 1040 Macbeth became King of Scotland.


Macbeth’s cousin, Duncan was King of Scotland from 1034 until when he was killed in battle by the forces under Macbeth on the 14th of August 1040. Macbeth Then became King of Scotland and is believed to be the first king to introduce feudalism to Scotland. Duncan’s widow, Suthed, was from an influential family in Northumbria, England and when Macbeth accepted Normans into his court he created tensions between himself and the last Saxon King of England, Edward the confessor. In retaliation for the murder of Suthed’s husband, Duncan, the Earl of Northumbria led an invasion of Scotland. The English forces, which included Duncan’s son and heir Malcolm, met with the forces of Scotland led by Macbeth. During the Battle Malcolm killed Macbeth on the 15th of August 1057 and subsequently became King Malcolm III of Scotland.


The Story of Duncan and Macbeth became legend early in the 17th century the story of Macbeth was written by William Shakespeare, which was very loosely based on the legend.




In 1814 Norway and Sweden signed a treaty at the “Moss Convention” which allowed Norway to keep its constitution.


The 17th of May 1814 marks the day Norway became a sovereign state free from the Denmark-Norwegian union which was ruled by an absolute monarchy for 434 years.  During the Napoleonic wars Norway and Denmark allied themselves with France and upon the defeat of Napoleon the Kiel Treaty was signed on the 14th of January 1814. Sweden, who had allied with Great Britain, Russia and Austria, demanded Norway and the treaty dissolved the union between Denmark and Norway and guaranteed the Swedish King his request.


The Norwegian Constituent Assembly created a signed a constitution on this day guaranteeing civil rights and the sovereignty of its people. But Sweden was determined and in July of 1814 they went to war with Norway for control. Although the Swedish army were victorious in war the Norwegian defence was sufficient to ensure peace talks and both sides signed a treaty at the “Moss Convention” on the 14th of August 1814. The treaty allowed Norway to keep the majority of its constitution as well as its own parliament. This marked the new Union of Norway and Sweden which lasted until 1905.




In 1947 Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom.


The government of the United Kingdom passed the Indian Independence act in 1947 which received royal ascent on the 8th of July that year making it law. The act gave independence to the subcontinent of India which had previously been under British rule. However western India had expressed its desire to become an independent dominion separate from the rest of India and therefore the act proclaimed that both India and the new dominion of Pakistan would gain there independence as of midnight between the 14th and 15th of August 1947. Pakistan now celebrate their independence on the 14th of August each year while India celebrate their independence on the 15th each year.