In 1745 the first battle of the final Jacobite uprising was won by the forces of Charles Edward Stuart.
On the 9th of December 1688 William of Orange defeated James II at the Battle of Reading and soon after he and his wife Mary became joint monarchs of England, Ireland and Scotland in what became known as “the Glorious Revolution”. He was deeply opposed to French King Louise XIV who had tried to invade his homeland of the Dutch Republic. James was placed in custody in the Netherlands but escaped shortly after on the 23rd of December 1688 and he fled to France. He was welcomed by his cousin Louise XIV.
The following year James sailed to Ireland to build an army and on the 1st of July 1690 his army was defeated by William III at the battle of the Boyne. James returned to France and died on the 16th of September 1701.
His son, James Francis Stuart, was immediately proclaimed James III (VIII in Scotland) of the Kingdoms by the French King Louise XVI and his supporters who later became known as “Jacobites”. In 1715 James led a Jacobite uprising in Scotland which failed.
In 1745 his son, Charles Edward Stuart (known as the Young Pretender), led another Jacobite rising which began in victory with the Battle of Gladsmuir (also known as the Battle of Prestonpans). The English forces were quickly defeated in this battle giving Charles Edward Stuart, and the Jacobites, a huge moral boost. But their victory was short lived and the following year the final Jacobite uprising ended in their defeat on the 16th of April 1745 at the Battle of Culloden.
In 1937 English writer and poet, J.R.R. Tolkien’s novel ‘The Hobbit’ is published.
In 1964 Malta gained independence from the United Kingdom and joined the Commonwealth of Nations.
In 1991 Armenia gains independents from the Soviet Union.