Physics Contents

Physics by Topic

Chapter 1. Cosmology

Solar System Test

1.1 The Solar System

The Sun Test

1.1.1 The Sun

Mercury Test

1.1.2 Mercury

Venus Test

1.1.3 Venus

Earth Test

1.1.4 Earth

1.1.5 Our Moon

Mars Test

1.1.6 Mars

Jupiter Test

1.1.7 Jupiter

Saturn Test

1.1.8 Saturn

1.1.9 Uranus

1.1.10 Neptune

1.1.11 Pluto

Milky Way Test

1.2 The Milky Way

Local Galactic Group Test

1.3 Local Galactic Group

The Big Bang Test

1.4 The Big Bang

Stars Test

1.5 Stars

1.5.1 The Birth of Stars

1.5.2 Plasma

1.5.3 Nuclear Fusion in Stars

1.5.4 The Life of Stars

1.5.5 Hydrogen Fuelled Stars (Stage I)

1.5.6 Helium Fuelled Stars (Stage II)

1.5.7 Carbon Fuelled Stars (Stage III)

1.5.8 White Dwarf Stars

1.5.9 Supernova

1.5.10 Neutron Stars

1.5.11 Pulsars

1.5.12 Black Holes

Chapter 2. Particle Physics

Standard Model Test

2.1 The Standard Model of Particle Physics

2.1.1 The discovery of sub-atomic particles

2.1.2 Electron Shells

2.1.3The Photoelectric Effect

2.1.4 Dirac’s Prediction of Antimatter

2.1.5 The discovery of anti-matter

2.1.6 Particle Accelerators

2.1.7 Hadrons

2.1.8 Baryons

2.1.9 Mesons

2.1.10 The Standard Model

2.1.11 Fermions

2.1.12 Quarks

2.1.13 Leptons

2.1.14 Fundamental Forces and Force Carrying Particles

2.1.15 Bosons

2.1.16 Photons (y) – The Electromagnetic Force

2.1.17 Gluons (g) – The Strong Force

2.1.18 Z and W Bosons – The Weak Force

2.1.19 Gravity and the Higgs Boson

Atoms Test

Chapter 3. Atoms

3.1 Diagram of an atom

3.2 Electrons

3.3 Discovery of Electrons

3.4 Properties of Electrons

3.5 Protons

3.6 Discovery of Protons

3.7 Properties of Protons

3.8 Neutrons

3.9 Discovery of Neutrons

3.10 Properties of Protons

Chapter 4. Isotopes

4.1 What Are Isotopes?

4.2 How are isotopes formed?

4.3 Stable Isotopes

4.4 Unstable Isotopes (Radioactive Isotopes)

4.4 Alpha Radiation or Alpha Decay

4.5 Beta Radiation or Beta Decay

4.6 Radioactive half-life

Chapter 5. Decay Chains

Chapter 6. Nuclear Reactions

6.1 What are Nuclear Reactions?

6.2 Nuclear Fusion (summary)

6.3 Nuclear Fission (summary)

6.4 Forces That Hold Atoms Together

6.5 How Nuclear Reactions Produce Energy

Chapter 7. Nuclear Fusion

7.1 What is Nuclear Fusion

7.2 Overcoming the Electromagnetic Forces

7.3 Nuclear Fusion in Stars

7.4 Energy Production through Nuclear Fusion

Chapter 8. Nuclear Fission

8.1 Energy Production in Nuclear Fission

8.2 Induced Nuclear Fission

8.3 Nuclear Fission Reactors

8.4 Why use Uranium for Nuclear Fission

8.5 Difficulties with Nuclear Fission as an Energy Source

8.6 Nuclear Fission and the Environment

8.7 Plutonium Fast Breeder Reactors

Chapter 9. Binding Energy

9.1 Nuclear Binding Energy

9.2 Calculating Binding Energy

9.3 Calculating the Assumed Mass

9.4 Binding Energy Per Nucleon

Chapter 10. Radiactive Dating

10.1 What is Radioactive Dating?

10.2 Carbon Dating

10.3 Geological Dating

10.4 Isotopes used in Geological Dating

10.5 Radioactive Dating with Uranium-238

Captain Bruce McCandless: The Man Who Defied Gravity

Captain Bruce McCandless: The Man Who Defied Gravity

Introduction Captain Bruce McCandless was a pioneer and a true legend in the field of aerospace engineering. His remarkable accomplishments and groundbreaking innovations have left an indelible mark on the history of space exploration. In this article, we will delve...

The Sun Test

The Sun Test

  Your Sun Test may take a minute to load.     If you have to navigate away from this page for any reason, don’t worry, you will have the option to resume your test from the point you left upon your return. The test may have multiple choice, multiple...

Planet Earth Test

Planet Earth Test

Your Planet Earth Test may take a minute to load. If you have to navigate away from this page for any reason, don’t worry, you will have the option to resume your test from the point you left upon your return. The test may have multiple choice, multiple answer or...

The Solar System

The Solar System

THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Origin of The Solar System BasicAdvanced   Around 5,000 million years ago the remnant of an exploded giant star (called a supernova) began to clump together under the force of gravity. These clumps were very small to start with but slowly as...

Geography of Earth

Geography of Earth

The Geography of Earth is unique in our solar system in that it is predominantly covered by water with the oceans covering 70.1% of the surface and with only 29.1% dry land (this is without taking into account all the lakes and rivers etc).   Land Mass Continents...

Big Bang Theory

Big Bang Theory

The big bang theory accompanied by inflation theory, is to date, the most accurate explanation for the creation of the universe.   Naming the Big Bang Theory Prediction of the Big Bang The Big Bang from a Singularity Evidence of the Big Bang Theory The Big Bang...

Steady State Theory

Steady State Theory

Steady State Theory was a model to explain the observation of the expanding universe before the Big Bang Theory became a viable theory.   The Problem The Answer What is Steady State Theory? Rise of the Steady State Theorists Problems with Steady State Theory Rise...

Pluto – the Dwarf Planet

Pluto – the Dwarf Planet

Pluto is situated in a region known as the Kuiper Belt, a band that sits approximately 30-50 AU’s (astronomical units – the distance from Earth to the Sun) from the Sun in a ring shape that encompasses the 8 planets.   Discovery Naming ‘Planet...

Milky Way Galaxy

Milky Way Galaxy

The shape of the Milky Way Galaxy is a Barred Spiral Galaxy. Made of hudreds of billions of stars the Diameter of the disk is 100,000 light years with the average thickness is about 2,000 light years. How the Milky Way Galaxy got its Name Early Discoveries of the...

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