Physics Contents

Physics by Topic

Chapter 1. Cosmology

Solar System Test

1.1 The Solar System

The Sun Test

1.1.1 The Sun

Mercury Test

1.1.2 Mercury

Venus Test

1.1.3 Venus

Earth Test

1.1.4 Earth

1.1.5 Our Moon

Mars Test

1.1.6 Mars

Jupiter Test

1.1.7 Jupiter

Saturn Test

1.1.8 Saturn

1.1.9 Uranus

1.1.10 Neptune

1.1.11 Pluto

Milky Way Test

1.2 The Milky Way

Local Galactic Group Test

1.3 Local Galactic Group

The Big Bang Test

1.4 The Big Bang

Stars Test

1.5 Stars

1.5.1 The Birth of Stars

1.5.2 Plasma

1.5.3 Nuclear Fusion in Stars

1.5.4 The Life of Stars

1.5.5 Hydrogen Fuelled Stars (Stage I)

1.5.6 Helium Fuelled Stars (Stage II)

1.5.7 Carbon Fuelled Stars (Stage III)

1.5.8 White Dwarf Stars

1.5.9 Supernova

1.5.10 Neutron Stars

1.5.11 Pulsars

1.5.12 Black Holes

Chapter 2. Particle Physics

Standard Model Test

2.1 The Standard Model of Particle Physics

2.1.1 The discovery of sub-atomic particles

2.1.2 Electron Shells

2.1.3The Photoelectric Effect

2.1.4 Dirac’s Prediction of Antimatter

2.1.5 The discovery of anti-matter

2.1.6 Particle Accelerators

2.1.7 Hadrons

2.1.8 Baryons

2.1.9 Mesons

2.1.10 The Standard Model

2.1.11 Fermions

2.1.12 Quarks

2.1.13 Leptons

2.1.14 Fundamental Forces and Force Carrying Particles

2.1.15 Bosons

2.1.16 Photons (y) – The Electromagnetic Force

2.1.17 Gluons (g) – The Strong Force

2.1.18 Z and W Bosons – The Weak Force

2.1.19 Gravity and the Higgs Boson

Atoms Test

Chapter 3. Atoms

3.1 Diagram of an atom

3.2 Electrons

3.3 Discovery of Electrons

3.4 Properties of Electrons

3.5 Protons

3.6 Discovery of Protons

3.7 Properties of Protons

3.8 Neutrons

3.9 Discovery of Neutrons

3.10 Properties of Protons

Chapter 4. Isotopes

4.1 What Are Isotopes?

4.2 How are isotopes formed?

4.3 Stable Isotopes

4.4 Unstable Isotopes (Radioactive Isotopes)

4.4 Alpha Radiation or Alpha Decay

4.5 Beta Radiation or Beta Decay

4.6 Radioactive half-life

Chapter 5. Decay Chains

Chapter 6. Nuclear Reactions

6.1 What are Nuclear Reactions?

6.2 Nuclear Fusion (summary)

6.3 Nuclear Fission (summary)

6.4 Forces That Hold Atoms Together

6.5 How Nuclear Reactions Produce Energy

Chapter 7. Nuclear Fusion

7.1 What is Nuclear Fusion

7.2 Overcoming the Electromagnetic Forces

7.3 Nuclear Fusion in Stars

7.4 Energy Production through Nuclear Fusion

Chapter 8. Nuclear Fission

8.1 Energy Production in Nuclear Fission

8.2 Induced Nuclear Fission

8.3 Nuclear Fission Reactors

8.4 Why use Uranium for Nuclear Fission

8.5 Difficulties with Nuclear Fission as an Energy Source

8.6 Nuclear Fission and the Environment

8.7 Plutonium Fast Breeder Reactors

Chapter 9. Binding Energy

9.1 Nuclear Binding Energy

9.2 Calculating Binding Energy

9.3 Calculating the Assumed Mass

9.4 Binding Energy Per Nucleon

Chapter 10. Radiactive Dating

10.1 What is Radioactive Dating?

10.2 Carbon Dating

10.3 Geological Dating

10.4 Isotopes used in Geological Dating

10.5 Radioactive Dating with Uranium-238

Stars – from Birth to Death

Stars – from Birth to Death

Born in the cosmic clouds (which can be up to 300 light-years across) known as nebula (meaning cloud) or “stellar nurseries”, stars form almost by chance. The Birth of Stars Plasma Nuclear Fusion in Stars The Life of Stars Hydrogen Fuelled Stars (Stage I)...

Planet Uranus

Planet Uranus

Planet Uranus is unique in our solar system in that its Obliquity or axil tilt is more than a right angle to its Elliptical path (its actual obliquity is 97.8˚).   Overview of Planet Uranus Discovery of Uranus Naming Uranus Obliquity of Planet Uranus Seasons of...

Planet Jupiter

Planet Jupiter

Planet Jupiter is 2.5 times more massive than all the other planets in our solar system combined, and is believed to have the largest moon system with 67 moons.   Overview of Planet Jupiter Formation of Planet Jupiter Layers of Jupiter Jupiter’s...

Planet Mars – The Red Planet

Planet Mars – The Red Planet

Planet Mars is the second smallest planet in our solar system, with a radius that is approximately half of Earth’s.   How Mars got its name Martian Orbit Surface of Planet Mars Martian Weather Life on Mars Curiosity Rover Where in the Solar System? Quick...

Planet Earth

Planet Earth

Planet Earth gets its name from the old English word ‘eorthe’ meaning ground. It is the only place in the universe that we know sustains life.   Planet Earth – the Cradle of life Origin of Planet Earth Seasons of Planet Earth Earth by Numbers Inside Planet Earth...

Planet Venus

Planet Venus

TThe planet Venus looked very tranquil and beautiful to early observers but it was hiding a very inhospitable environment.   Naming Planet Venus Transit of Planet Venus Surface of Venus Environment of Planet Venus Spin and Magnetosphere of Venus Where in the...

Planet Mercury

Planet Mercury

Planet Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system and orbits closest to our Sun. It is named after the messenger of the roman gods due to the speed of its orbit.   Orbit of Planet Mercury Temperature Variations on Mercury Transit of Mercury Messenger The...



The Sun’s Rotation Sections of the Sun The Core The Radioactive Zone The Convection Zone The Photosphere The Chromosphere The Corona       As illustrated the sun rotates in an anti-clockwise direction as observed from its most northern point. The...

Radioactive Dating

Radioactive Dating

Radioactive dating is a process whereby a person can calculate the age of an object by measuring its rate of radioactive decay.   What is Radioactive Dating? Carbon Dating Geological Dating Isotopes used in Geological Dating Radioactive Dating with Uranium-238...

Isotopes – what are they?

Isotopes – what are they?

Isotopes are the variations of elements. An element is defined by the amount of its protons while an isotope of that element has different amount of neutrons. What are isotopes? How are isotopes formed? Stable Isotopes Unstable Isotopes (Radioactive Isotopes) Alpha...

Our Moon

Our Moon

Shortly after the formation of our moon by the Great Impact event our neighbour would have been much closer to Earth Our Moon The Great Impact Hypothesis Tidal Forces Craters on the Moon Solar Eclipse Total Eclipse Partial Eclipse Luna Eclipse Quick Stats     Our Moon...

Nuclear Reactions

Nuclear Reactions

Nuclear reactions are reactions that change the nucleus of atoms and are caused by special circumstances, such as Nuclear Fusion or Nuclear Fission. What are Nuclear Reactions? Nuclear Fusion Nuclear Fission Forces that Hold Atoms Together How nuclear reactions...

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