Physics Contents

Physics by Topic

Chapter 1. Cosmology

Solar System Test

1.1 The Solar System

The Sun Test

1.1.1 The Sun

Mercury Test

1.1.2 Mercury

Venus Test

1.1.3 Venus

Earth Test

1.1.4 Earth

1.1.5 Our Moon

Mars Test

1.1.6 Mars

Jupiter Test

1.1.7 Jupiter

Saturn Test

1.1.8 Saturn

1.1.9 Uranus

1.1.10 Neptune

1.1.11 Pluto

Milky Way Test

1.2 The Milky Way

Local Galactic Group Test

1.3 Local Galactic Group

The Big Bang Test

1.4 The Big Bang

Stars Test

1.5 Stars

1.5.1 The Birth of Stars

1.5.2 Plasma

1.5.3 Nuclear Fusion in Stars

1.5.4 The Life of Stars

1.5.5 Hydrogen Fuelled Stars (Stage I)

1.5.6 Helium Fuelled Stars (Stage II)

1.5.7 Carbon Fuelled Stars (Stage III)

1.5.8 White Dwarf Stars

1.5.9 Supernova

1.5.10 Neutron Stars

1.5.11 Pulsars

1.5.12 Black Holes

Chapter 2. Particle Physics

Standard Model Test

2.1 The Standard Model of Particle Physics

2.1.1 The discovery of sub-atomic particles

2.1.2 Electron Shells

2.1.3The Photoelectric Effect

2.1.4 Dirac’s Prediction of Antimatter

2.1.5 The discovery of anti-matter

2.1.6 Particle Accelerators

2.1.7 Hadrons

2.1.8 Baryons

2.1.9 Mesons

2.1.10 The Standard Model

2.1.11 Fermions

2.1.12 Quarks

2.1.13 Leptons

2.1.14 Fundamental Forces and Force Carrying Particles

2.1.15 Bosons

2.1.16 Photons (y) – The Electromagnetic Force

2.1.17 Gluons (g) – The Strong Force

2.1.18 Z and W Bosons – The Weak Force

2.1.19 Gravity and the Higgs Boson

Atoms Test

Chapter 3. Atoms

3.1 Diagram of an atom

3.2 Electrons

3.3 Discovery of Electrons

3.4 Properties of Electrons

3.5 Protons

3.6 Discovery of Protons

3.7 Properties of Protons

3.8 Neutrons

3.9 Discovery of Neutrons

3.10 Properties of Protons

Chapter 4. Isotopes

4.1 What Are Isotopes?

4.2 How are isotopes formed?

4.3 Stable Isotopes

4.4 Unstable Isotopes (Radioactive Isotopes)

4.4 Alpha Radiation or Alpha Decay

4.5 Beta Radiation or Beta Decay

4.6 Radioactive half-life

Chapter 5. Decay Chains

Chapter 6. Nuclear Reactions

6.1 What are Nuclear Reactions?

6.2 Nuclear Fusion (summary)

6.3 Nuclear Fission (summary)

6.4 Forces That Hold Atoms Together

6.5 How Nuclear Reactions Produce Energy

Chapter 7. Nuclear Fusion

7.1 What is Nuclear Fusion

7.2 Overcoming the Electromagnetic Forces

7.3 Nuclear Fusion in Stars

7.4 Energy Production through Nuclear Fusion

Chapter 8. Nuclear Fission

8.1 Energy Production in Nuclear Fission

8.2 Induced Nuclear Fission

8.3 Nuclear Fission Reactors

8.4 Why use Uranium for Nuclear Fission

8.5 Difficulties with Nuclear Fission as an Energy Source

8.6 Nuclear Fission and the Environment

8.7 Plutonium Fast Breeder Reactors

Chapter 9. Binding Energy

9.1 Nuclear Binding Energy

9.2 Calculating Binding Energy

9.3 Calculating the Assumed Mass

9.4 Binding Energy Per Nucleon

Chapter 10. Radiactive Dating

10.1 What is Radioactive Dating?

10.2 Carbon Dating

10.3 Geological Dating

10.4 Isotopes used in Geological Dating

10.5 Radioactive Dating with Uranium-238

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear Fission

Nuclear fission occurs when a large atomic nucleus is split by means of neutron bobardment into smaller nuclei. Nuclear Fission Where the energy comes from in Nuclear Fission? Induced Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fission Reactors Why use Uranium for Nuclear Fission?...

Binding Energy

Binding Energy

Binding Energy is the energy required to break up the bonds of atoms or the energy released when small atoms combine. Binding Energy Nuclear Binding Energy Calculating Binding Energy Calculating the Assumed Mass Binding Energy per Nucleon       Binding...

Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Fusion is the name given to the the event when the nuclei of two atoms combine creating a new heavier atomic nucleus. What is Nuclear Fusion? Overcoming the Electromagnetic Force Nuclear Fusion in Stars Energy Production through Nuclear Fusion What is Nuclear...

Metis – Moon of Jupiter

Metis – Moon of Jupiter

Metis is one of Jupiter’s many moons, which is currently believed to have at least 63. It is one of four moons that make up the ‘Inner Group’. Where in the Solar System? The Inner Group Metis     Where in the Solar System?   Metis is...

Martian Moons

Martian Moons

In the August of 1877 an American astronomer was looking at Mars in hopes of discovering a moon. He instead discovered two Martian Moons; Deimos and Phobos.   Naming the Moons of Mars Shape and Orbit of the Martian Moons Origin of the Martian Moons Phobos Deimos...

Local Galactic Group

Local Galactic Group

The Local galactic group is the term we use for a group of over thirty galaxies in our local vicinity.     What is our Local Galactic Group? Which Galaxies makeup our Local Galactic Group? Milky Way Group Andromeda The Triangulum spiral Galaxy (M33) Galaxies...

Decay Chains

Decay Chains

  Decay Chains is the name given to the stages of radioactive decay of unstable isotopes or elements. Some radioactive isotopes decay into stable isotopes directly but some unstable or radioactive isotopes decay into other unstable isotopes many times before...

Cepheid Variables

Cepheid Variables

        What are Cepheid Variables? Why are they useful? Measuring the Milky Way Hubble’s work with Cepheid Variables Existence of other galaxies The Expanding Universe Dark Energy Dating the Universe     What are Cepheid Variables?...



It has been believed for a thousand years that atoms were the smallest component of matter, but in the late 19th century that the first evidence that atoms were made up of smaller sub-atomic particles came to light.     About Atoms Diagram of an atom...

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