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Physics Contents

 

Chapter 1. Cosmology

 

 

Solar System Test

1.1 The Solar System

The Sun Test

1.1.1 The Sun

Mercury Test

1.1.2 Mercury

Venus Test

1.1.3 Venus

Earth Test

1.1.4 Earth

 

1.1.5 Our Moon

Mars Test

1.1.6 Mars

Jupiter Test

1.1.7 Jupiter

Saturn Test

1.1.8 Saturn

 

1.1.9 Uranus

 

1.1.10 Neptune

Pluto Test

1.1.11 Pluto

 

 

Milky Way Test

1.2 The Milky Way

Local Galactic Group Test

1.3 Local Galactic Group

The Big Bang Test

1.4 The Big Bang

Stars Test

1.5 Stars

 

1.5.1 The Birth of Stars

 

1.5.2 Plasma

 

1.5.3 Nuclear Fusion in Stars

 

1.5.4 The Life of Stars

 

1.5.5 Hydrogen Fuelled Stars (Stage I)

 

1.5.6 Helium Fuelled Stars (Stage II)

 

1.5.7 Carbon Fuelled Stars (Stage III)

 

1.5.8 White Dwarf Stars

 

1.5.9 Supernova

 

1.5.10 Neutron Stars

 

1.5.11 Pulsars

 

1.5.12 Black Holes

   
   
   
   
 

Chapter 2. Particle Physics

   
Standard Model Test

2.1 The Standard Model of Particle Physics

 

2.1.1 The discovery of sub-atomic particles

 

2.1.2 Electron Shells

 

2.1.3The Photoelectric Effect

 

2.1.4 Dirac’s Prediction of Antimatter

 

2.1.5 The discovery of anti-matter

 

2.1.6 Particle Accelerators

 

2.1.7 Hadrons

 

2.1.8 Baryons

 

2.1.9 Mesons

 

2.1.10 The Standard Model

 

2.1.11 Fermions

 

2.1.12 Quarks

 

2.1.13 Leptons

 

2.1.14 Fundamental Forces and Force Carrying Particles

 

2.1.15 Bosons

 

2.1.16 Photons (y) – The Electromagnetic Force

 

2.1.17 Gluons (g) – The Strong Force

 

2.1.18 Z and W Bosons – The Weak Force

 

2.1.19 Gravity and the Higgs Boson

   
Atoms Test

Chapter 3. Atoms

 

 

3.1 Diagram of an atom

 

3.2 Electrons

 

3.3 Discovery of Electrons

 

3.4 Properties of Electrons

 

3.5 Protons

 

3.6 Discovery of Protons

 

3.7 Properties of Protons

 

3.8 Neutrons

 

3.9 Discovery of Neutrons

 

3.10 Properties of Protons

   
 

Chapter 4. Isotopes

   
 

4.1 What Are Isotopes?

 

4.2 How are isotopes formed?

 

4.3 Stable Isotopes

 

4.4 Unstable Isotopes (Radioactive Isotopes)

 

4.4 Alpha Radiation or Alpha Decay

 

4.5 Beta Radiation or Beta Decay

 

4.6 Radioactive half-life

   
 

Chapter 5. Decay Chains

   
 

Chapter 6. Nuclear Reactions

   
 

6.1 What are Nuclear Reactions?

 

6.2 Nuclear Fusion (summary)

 

6.3 Nuclear Fission (summary)

 

6.4 Forces That Hold Atoms Together

 

6.5 How Nuclear Reactions Produce Energy

   
 

Chapter 7. Nuclear Fusion

   
 

7.1 What is Nuclear Fusion

 

7.2 Overcoming the Electromagnetic Forces

 

7.3 Nuclear Fusion in Stars

 

7.4 Energy Production through Nuclear Fusion

   
 

Chapter 8. Nuclear Fission

   
 

8.1 Energy Production in Nuclear Fission

 

8.2 Induced Nuclear Fission

 

8.3 Nuclear Fission Reactors

 

8.4 Why use Uranium for Nuclear Fission

 

8.5 Difficulties with Nuclear Fission as an Energy Source

 

8.6 Nuclear Fission and the Environment

 

8.7 Plutonium Fast Breeder Reactors

   
 

Chapter 9. Binding Energy

   
 

9.1 Nuclear Binding Energy

 

9.2 Calculating Binding Energy

 

9.3 Calculating the Assumed Mass

 

9.4 Binding Energy Per Nucleon

   
 

Chapter 10. Radiactive Dating

 

 

 
10.1 What is Radioactive Dating?
 
10.2 Carbon Dating
 
10.3 Geological Dating
 
10.4 Isotopes used in Geological Dating
 
10.5 Radioactive Dating with Uranium-238